By The Associated Press - December 23, 2001
The National Defense Council Foundation's list of the 59 countries found to have endured serious conflicts this year:
Afghanistan: Continuing civil war between northern alliance and Taliban forces; the U.S. military campaign against terrorism; one of the world's leading sources for opium trafficking.
Algeria: Internal strife and terror attacks caused by Islamic extremists (such as the Armed Islamic Group and the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat) and Berber secessionists in the Kabylie region.
Angola: Rebellion by UNITA.
Bangladesh: Violence surrounding the election.
Bolivia: Clash between government troops and coca farmers; Charges of government using paramilitary forces.
Burundi: Rebellion by FNL (Hutus) against Tutsi-dominated government.
Cameroon: Secessionist protests turned violent, army called out; border dispute with Central African Republic flared up.
Central African Republic: Failed coup against President Felix Patasse; Rebels under former Army Chief General Francois Bozize fighting the government forces, which are backed by Libyan forces. New to list.
Chad: Rebel group in North (MDJT) fighting government forces, want President Idriss Deby to resign.
China: Uighur Muslim separatists in Xinjiang province; violent suppression of Falun Gong movement.
Colombia: Drug war; rebel groups against government forces and paramilitaries.
Comoros: Violent coup on island of Anjouan, which declared independence four years ago.
Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire): Assassination of President Laurent Kabila; civil war featuring government forces (joined by forces from Angola, Namibia and Zimbabwe) against MLC rebel forces (backed by Uganda and Rwanda, who believe Congo was a breeding ground for rebels in their own countries.)
East Timor: Militia violence; election violence; religious violence (Muslims vs. Christians).
Gambia: Violence preceding the re-election of President Yahya Jammeh; Senegalese separatists in Casamance may also be operating there. New to list.
Georgia: Chechen separatists in Abkhazia.
Ghana: Ethnic and political fighting between the Mamprusi and Kusasi in Northeast; excessive violent crime. New to list.
Guinea: Cross-border attacks by RUF rebels from Sierra Leone backed by Liberia; refugee crisis.
Guinea-Bissau: Government forces fight with Senegalese Casamance rebels that crossed the border.
Haiti: Attempted coup against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and government raids in response; political violence; labor unrest.
India: Dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir; separatists in caste province of Assam.
Indonesia: Separatists in Aceh; ethnic violence on Borneo between Madurese and Dayak; political violence in East Java; religious violence on Sulawesi Island blamed on Laskar Jihad.
Iran: People's Mujahideen continue violence; drug trafficking and related violence; political unrest due to war in Afghanistan.
Iraq: Air strikes by U.S. and allied aircraft enforcing no-fly zones.
Israel: The new intifada and the Israeli response to it; crackdown on terrorist organizations.
Ivory Coast: Attempted coup against President Laurent Gbagbo; attempted countercoup; mutiny within the army; violent election followed by political and ethnic violence.
Jamaica: Political related gang warfare in Kingston; army accused of instigating further violence when called out. New to list.
Kenya: Ethnic violence in Nairobi slums between Nubian landlords and Luo tenants. New to list.
Kosovo: Continued interethnic violence; drug trafficking; organized crime.
Kyrgystan: Kidnapping and murder by Uighur militants from Xinjiang province of China.
Lebanon: Israel strikes a radar station, shoots down a light plane, strikes Hezbollah operating in Lebanon.
Liberia: Dissidents of the United Liberation Movement fighting the government in North.
Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Ethnic fighting between Macedonians and Albanian National Liberation Army; organized crime. New to list.
Malawi: Political violence preceding election. New to list.
Malaysia: Ethnic violence between Malays and Indians; drug and gang violence. New to list.
Myanmar (Burma): Fighting between government forces and the Shan State Army, a guerrilla group seeking independence for the Shan ethnic minority.
Nepal: Maoist insurgency; murder of royal family.
Nigeria: Religious fighting between Christians and Muslims; ethnic fighting between Egon and Tiv groups.
Pakistan: Dispute with India over Kashmir; terror attacks/bombings.
Papua New Guinea: Mutiny by soldiers over army downsizing; violent protests over economic reforms. New to list.
Philippines: Muslim separatists; election violence.
Russian Federation: Chechnya conflict.
Senegal: Secessionist rebels continuing 18-year struggle in Casamance province.
Sierra Leone: RUF rebels and pro-government militias fight in the North; Guinea conducting anti-RUF airstrikes.
Somalia: Warlords undermining transitional government; possible terrorist haven.
Spain: Continuing terror attacks by Basque separatists.
Sri Lanka: Tamil Tiger separatist rebels; election violence.
Sudan: Christians and animists (SPLA) fighting Muslim-dominated government.
Tajikistan: Russian border guards skirmish with Afghans.
Tanzania: Political violence surrounding disputed election; separatist violence by Civic United Front in Zanzibar. New to list.
Thailand: Fighting in Myanmar has spilled over; terror bombings.
Turkey: Underground militant groups; ambush of soldiers; prison riots and related demonstrations; terror bombings; Kurdish rebels resume fight with army.
Uganda: Election violence; rural crime.
United Kingdom: Renewed violence in Northern Ireland.
United States of America: Sept. 11 terrorist attacks. New to list.
Uzbekistan: Repeated terrorist incidents, ambushes, narcotics trafficking. Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan associated with al Qaeda.
Yemen: Violence surrounding constitutional referendum; small arms proliferation; hotbed of Islamic militant extremism.
Yugoslavia: Ethnic Albanian secessionists in Presevo; narcotics trafficking; organized crime.
Zimbabwe: Violent land reform; election violence; violence against journalists; political fighting.